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Category Archives: Sport

Water Polo

Water polo is an intense sport that requires athletes to tread water and swim for long periods. There is a version for younger athletes that allows them to stand in shallow water or hang onto the side of the pool, but this is illegal in competitive water polo.

Acute and overuse injuries are common in water polo. Acute injuries usually occur when guarding a player or wrestling for the ball. Overuse injuries are often the result of repeated swimming and throwing motions and treading water. As in many sports, the risk of injury increases with age due to the style of play, contact forces, and size of athletes. However, the risk of injuries can be reduced.

The following is information from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) about how to prevent water polo injuries. Also included is an overview of common injuries.

Injury prevention and safety tips

  • Sports physical exam. Athletes should have a preparticipation physical evaluation (PPE) to make sure they are ready to safely begin the sport. The best time for a PPE is about 4 to 6 weeks before the beginning of the season. Athletes also should see their doctors for routine well-child checkups.
  • Fitness. Athletes should maintain a good fitness level during the season and off-season. Preseason training should allow time for general conditioning and sport-specific conditioning. Athletes with poor stamina are more likely to get hurt both in and out of the water. Also important are proper warm-up and cool-down exercises.
  • Technique. Athletes should learn and practice safe techniques for performing the skills that are integral to their sport. Athletes should be confident in their ability to swim in close spaces with others. If not, they should begin playing in the shallow end in case they need to stand. Athletes should work with coaches and athletic trainers on achieving proper technique.
  • Equipment. Safety gear should fit properly and be well maintained.
    • Polo caps with ear guards to reduce the risk of ear injury
    • Mouth guards
    • Swim goggles
    • Sunscreen protection (sunscreen, lip balm with sunblock) when swimming outdoors
  • Environment. Pool water should be checked by persons in charge of pool maintenance. Excess chemicals and chlorine may cause eye irritation and skin rashes. Hypothermia may occur when playing in cold water.
  • Rules. Water polo can be very rough. Much of the “contact” takes place underwater, where referees cannot see well. These fouls are often missed and can lead to injury. Parents and coaches should encourage good sportsmanship and fair play. For instance, athletes should never dunk an opponent under the water.
  • Emergency plan. Teams should develop and practice an emergency plan so that team members know their roles in emergency situations in or out of the water. The plan would include first aid and emergency contact information. All members of the team should receive a written copy each season. Parents also should be familiar with the plan and review it with their children.

Common injuries

Eye injuries

Eye injuries commonly occur in sports that involve balls but can also result from a finger in the eye. Any injury that affects vision or is associated with swelling or blood inside the eye should be evaluated by an ophthalmologist. Water polo players should wear swim goggles during practice and competition. The AAP recommends that children involved in organized sports wear appropriate protective eyewear.

Head injuries

Concussions often occur when an athlete gets hit in the head by another athlete (usually from their elbow). A concussion is any injury to the brain that disrupts normal brain function on a temporary or permanent basis.

The signs and symptoms of a concussion range from subtle to obvious and usually happen right after the injury but may take hours to days to show up. Athletes who have had concussions may report feeling normal before their brain has fully recovered. With most concussions, the player is not knocked out or unconscious.

Prematurely returning to play after a concussion can lead to another concussion or even death. An athlete with a history of concussion is more susceptible to another injury than an athlete with no history of concussion.

All concussions are serious, and all athletes with suspected concussions should not return to play until they see a doctor.

Shoulder injuries

Shoulder injuries usually occur from repetitive throwing and swimming motions. This may be due to weak muscles in the back and trunk of the body. Usually rehabilitation exercises focused on good posture and muscles of the shoulder blade and core, icing, medication, and rest are all that is necessary for treatment.

Finger injuries

Finger injuries occur when the finger is struck by the ball or an opponent’s hand or body. The “jammed finger” is often overlooked because of the myth that nothing needs to be done, even if it is broken. If fractures that involve a joint or tendon are not properly treated, permanent damage can occur.

Any injury that is associated with a dislocation, deformity, inability to straighten or bend the finger, or significant pain should be examined by a doctor. X-rays may be needed. Buddy tape may be all that is needed to return to sports; however, this cannot be assumed without an exam and x-ray. Swelling often persists for weeks to months after a finger joint sprain. Ice, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and range of motion exercises are important for treatment.

Knee injuries

Patellar pain syndrome is a common overuse injury from prolonged kicking and treading water. It causes pain in the front of the knee, sometimes associated with a bump, and can be severe. It is treated with ice, stretching, NSAIDs, and relative rest.

Athletes should see a doctor as soon as possible if they cannot walk on the injured knee. Athletes should also see a doctor if the knee is swollen, a pop is felt at the time of injury, or the knee feels loose or like it will give way.

Soccer Safety Tips

Soccer (known as football outside the United States) is one of the most popular team sports in the world. Soccer also can be a way to encourage children to be physically active while they learn about teamwork and sportsmanship.

With the growing popularity of soccer comes a greater number of injuries. However, the risk of injury can be reduced.

Tips to Help Prevent Soccer Injuries

  • Equipment. Players should use the right equipment.
    • Protective Mouthguards
    • Protective Eyewear. Glasses or goggles should be made with polycarbonate or a similar material. The material should conform to the standards of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM).
    • Shoes. Cleats should provide sufficient heel/arch support and grip.
    • Balls. Soccer balls should be water-resistant, the right size based on age, and properly inflated.
    • Preseason Training. There is growing evidence that preseason conditioning and balance training may reduce the risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury.
  • Fair Play. Violent behavior and aggressive play increase the risk of injury and should be strongly discouraged. Parents and coaches should encourage good sportsmanship and fair play.
  • Field Conditions. Uneven playing surfaces can increase risk of injury, especially in outdoor soccer. The field should be checked for holes or irregularities. Goal posts should be secured to the ground at all times even when not in use. Follow installation guidelines from the manufacturers and Consumer Product Safety Commission.
  • Heading Technique. The risk of a head injury is comparable to other contact/collision sports, though evidence does not support repeated heading as a risk for short- or long-term cognitive issues. However, to reduce the risk of injury from heading the soccer ball, players should be taught proper heading technique at the appropriate age and with an appropriate-sized ball.
    Excessive heading drills should be discouraged until more is known about the effects on the brain. Also, no recommendations regarding the use of helmets or cushioned pads to reduce head injury in soccer can be made at this time. More research and established safety standards and regulations are needed.

Common Soccer Injuries

Soccer injuries in general occur when players collide with each other or when players collide with the ground, ball, or goalpost. They also may result from nonbody contact, such as from running, twisting/turning, shooting, and landing. The most common types of injuries in youth soccer are sprains and strains, followed by contusions (bruises). Most injuries are minor, requiring basic first aid or a maximum of 1 week’s rest from playing soccer.

  • Ankle & Knee Injuries. Most ankle and knee injuries do not result from contact with another player. Ankle injuries are more common in male players and knee injuries are more common in female players. ACL injuries are relatively common knee injuries. Most of these injuries happen not from coming in contact with another player, but from sudden stops and pivots. ACL injury risk-reduction programs are recommended for female adolescents.
  • Heel Pain. Irritation of the growth plate of the heel bone (Sever’s Disease) is common in youth soccer. This can be treated with calf stretching, activity modification (avoid extra running), heel cups or arch supports, ice, and antiinflammatory medicine.
  • Head Injuries. Concussions are common in soccer. They usually occur when a player’s head collides with another player’s head, shoulder, or arm, or the ground. Females tend to have a slightly higher concussion risk than males. Concussions temporarily affect brain function, although loss of consciousness or blackout may or may not happen. All concussions are serious and need to be evaluated by a doctor before players can return to play. The signs and symptoms of a concussion range from mild to severe and usually happen right after the injury, but may take hours to days to show up. With most concussions, the player is not knocked out or unconscious.
  • Mouth, Face & Teeth Injuries. Soccer is one of the leading causes of mouth, facial, anddental injuries in sports (second only to basketball). Use of protective mouthguards may help reduce the number of injuries.
  • Eye Injuries. Eye injuries are rare, but when they occur they are often severe, resulting in damage to the eye globe or blowout fractures of the eye socket. Protective eyewear is recommended for all soccer players.

Golf

In the past, golf was seen by many as a leisure activity for people with extra time and money to spend. Today golf is seen as a sport, and one that appeals to younger participants.

While golf is not thought of as a dangerous sport, the long hours of practice and the physical demands of learning and playing the game can lead to injuries. While not all injuries can be prevented, the risk of injuries can be reduced.

The following is a chart from the American Academy of Pediatrics of common golf injuries and an overview of symptoms and treatment. Also included are diagrams of 2 exercises.

Common injuries, symptoms, and treatment

Golf injuries can be divided into those that occur from swinging a club and those that occur from the miles of walking on a golf course. To prevent injury, athletes must have an understanding of the stresses golf puts on the body and must prepare their bodies to handle these stresses.

Most golf injuries develop over time rather than as a result of a single event. It is important to recognize the early signs of an injury and seek treatment before the condition gets worse.

Also, a general warm-up before practicing or playing can help prevent injury. This should consist of exercises that increase circulation to the muscles and stretch the shoulders, back, hips, and legs. It also helps to take warm-up swings with a weighted club (or 2 clubs) and hit practice shots when possible.

Exercises

Rotational stretch and warm-up

This is a dynamic stretch for shoulders, back, and hips and a good warm-up that can easily be done at the golf course or practice range.

  1. Stand while holding club behind upper back.
  2. Rotate back and forth while keeping feet planted.
  3. Try to feel stretch in shoulders, spine, and hips.

Hip/low back flexibility

This exercise improves flexibility in hips and low back; increases rotation and ability to “turn” when hitting ball.

  1. Lie on back; cross legs.
  2. Use top leg to push opposite knee to floor; keep shoulders flat and pelvis on the floor.

Martial Arts

More than 6 million children in the United States participate in martial arts. Martial arts are known to improve social skills, discipline, and respect in children. Children can also improve their abilities to concentrate and focus on activities, as well as bettering their motor skills and self-confidence. Martial arts can be fun and beneficial at any age.

While the martial arts are relatively safe, injuries can happen because there is physical contact between opponents. The following is information from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) about how to prevent martial arts injuries. Also included is an overview of martial arts forms.

Injury prevention and safety tips

  • Instructors. Experienced instructors will teach at a level appropriate for your child’s age and maturity. Lessons should emphasize technique and self-control. Experienced instructors will carefully advance your child through more complex training. Lessons should also be fun. Visit a variety of instructors and ask about their experiences with young children and their teaching philosophy.
  • Technique. An instructor’s emphasis on technique and self-control is very important in limiting the risk for injury. Children should learn to punch and kick with their hands and feet in proper position and using the appropriate amount of force. Kicks and punches with the hand or foot in the wrong position can cause injuries to fingers and toes. Punches or kicks that are too hard can cause pain or bruises. Contact to the head should be discouraged.
    • Equipment. Safety gear should fit properly and be well maintained.
    • Headgear. When the rules allow, protective headgear should be worn for sparring or for activities with risk of falling, such as high jumps or flying kicks.
    • Body pads can help protect against scrapes and bruises and limit the pain from kicks and punches. Arm pads, shin pads, and chest protection for sparring.
    • Mouth guards.
  • Environment. Mats and floors should be safe to play on. Gaps between mats can cause sprained ankles. Wet or worn floors can cause slips and falls.

Common injuries

Scrapes and bruises

Scrapes and bruises are by far the most common injuries seen in the martial arts. They often result from falls onto mats, kicks and punches that are “off target,” or when proper padding is not worn. All scrapes and cuts should be washed with soap and water and bandaged before returning to activity. Bruises are best treated with ice applied for 20 to 30 minutes. They will slowly get better and fade over 2 to 3 days.

Sprains and strains

Sprains and strains become more common as children get older. Ankles, knees, and elbows are the joints most often sprained. Muscle strains usually happen in the front (quadriceps) or the back (hamstrings) of the thigh. Most knee and ankle sprains occur either by landing awkwardly after a jump or by improper contact with a partner. Elbow and wrist injuries happen with falling, punching, or blocking. Muscle strains can occur with trying to kick too high or punch too hard without using correct form or having properly warmed up.

Finger and toe injuries

Finger and toe injuries are often due to the large amount of kicking and punching of padded targets. They may also happen when sparring with a partner. These injuries are usually the result of poor kicking and punching technique. Contact with the target should never be initiated with the fingers or toes. Jammed fingers result from holding the hand in the wrong position (fingers spread) or if the toes are used to hit the target(instead of the heel or top of the foot).

Any injury that is associated with a dislocation, deformity, inability to straighten or bend the finger, or significant pain should be examined by a doctor. X-rays are usually needed. Buddy tape may be all that is needed to return to sports; however, this cannot be assumed without an exam and x-ray. Swelling often persists for weeks to months after a finger joint sprain. Ice, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and range of motion exercises are important for treatment.

Head injuries

Concussions can occur in martial arts if children fall and strike their heads, or if they are kicked or punched in the head. A concussion is any injury to the brain that disrupts normal brain function on a temporary or permanent basis.

The signs and symptoms of a concussion range from subtle to obvious and usually happen right after the injury but may take hours to days to show up. Athletes who have had concussions may report feeling normal before their brain has fully recovered. With most concussions, the player is not knocked out or unconscious.

Prematurely returning to play after a concussion can lead to another concussion or even death. An athlete with a history of concussion is more susceptible to another injury than an athlete with no history of concussion. Once a concussion has occurred, it is important to make sure the helmet is fitted properly. If the concussion occurred due to the player leading with the head to make a tackle, he should be strongly discouraged from continuing that practice.

All concussions are serious, and all athletes with suspected concussions should not return to play until they see a doctor. The AAP recommends children avoid sports that reward blows to the head.

Types of martial arts

The term martial arts can be used to describe any number of styles or disciplines of self-defense practices. There are many different styles practiced around the world, with the most popular forms being karate, tae kwon do, and judo.

  • Karate (KAH-rah-teh) means “empty hand,” as it
    is normally practiced without weapons.
    Karate is a traditional Japanese form. The hands and feet are trained and prepared for use in a weaponless form of self-defense.
  • Tae kwon do (tahy-kwon-doh) means “the way of foot and fist.” This is a traditional Korean martial art. It is also the most popular. This form highlights discipline, respect, and personal growth and focuses on the use of the feet for powerful kicks in self-defense.
  • Judo (joo-doh) means “gentle way” and is known for a variety of throwing techniques. It uses many methods to control an opponent while on the ground. In many ways it is more similar to wrestling than to the other martial arts.
  • Kung fu (kung-foo) most commonly translates to “hard work” and is one of the oldest forms of martial arts. The term may be used to describe all of the hundreds of Chinese martial arts. Kung fu is mainly a “stand-up” form of the martial arts, known for its powerful blocks. Wushu is the most popular and modern form of kung fu.
  • Aikido (eye-key-do) means “way of harmony.” This Japanese martial art is known as a throwing style. It teaches a nonaggressive approach to self-defense, focusing on joint locks, throws, and restraining techniques, rather than kicks and punches. While aikido may be learned at any age, it is especially popular among women and older adults. Aikido is not practiced as a competitive sport.
  • Jujitsu (joo-jit-soo) means “the art of softness” and emphasizes techniques that allow a smaller fighter to overcome a bigger, stronger opponent. First practiced in Japan, jujutsu is considered a ground fighting or grappling style of the martial arts. Many of the forms have been incorporated into other martial arts such as judo, karate, and aikido. The arm lock and submission techniques have been taught to police all over the world.

Horseback Riding

Horseback riding (equestrian) is a common activity in the United States; about 30 million people go horseback riding every year. Unlike other sports, the risk of injury is highest for the most inexperienced riders. As riders gain experience, they learn how to avoid injury as they learn to properly handle the horse.

Most horseback riding injuries happen when a rider falls or is thrown from a horse. Falls are more likely to produce serious injuries if the horse is moving quickly or if the rider is dragged or crushed by the horse. However, not all injuries happen while riding. The most serious injuries while off the horse are from horse kicks.

The following is information from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) about how to prevent horseback riding injuries. Also included is an overview of common horseback riding injuries.

Injury prevention and safety tips

  • Stable conditions. Proper care of the horses is important. Stables should be well maintained and staffed with trained professionals.
  • Horse safety. Riders should always be careful around horses and should be instructed to never walk behind a horse, or make sudden movements or loud noises near them. Riders should never ride unsupervised or ride horses with unknown temperaments. A trained professional should check that all equipment is in good working order. Girth strap, stirrup leathers, and reins should be securely fastened before children are allowed to ride.
  • Equipment. Safety gear should fit properly and be well maintained.
    • Helmets should be worn by riders every time they ride. Helmets should meet the standards of the American Society for Testing and Materials and be certified by Safety Equipment Institute.
    • Riding boots should be sturdy, have a small heel, and completely cover the ankle.
    • Saddles and stirrups should fit the rider correctly. Young children and inexperienced riders should use safety stirrups (that break away if a rider falls off the horse) or toe stoppers (covers to keep the foot from sliding through the stirrup).
    • Protective vests can reduce the impact of a fall, especially for inexperienced riders.

Common injuries

Head injuries

Concussions in horseback riding usually occur when a riders’ head hits the ground after a severe fall. A concussion is any injury to the brain that disrupts normal brain function on a temporary or permanent basis.

The signs and symptoms of a concussion range from subtle to obvious and usually happen right after the injury but may take hours to days to show up. Athletes who have had concussions may report feeling normal before their brain has fully recovered. With most concussions, the rider is not knocked out or unconscious.

Prematurely returning to riding after a concussion can lead to another concussion or even death. An athlete with a history of concussion is more susceptible to another injury than an athlete with no history of concussion. Head injuries are usually more severe when helmets are not worn.

All concussions are serious, and all athletes with suspected concussions should not return to riding until they see a doctor.

Ankle sprains

Ankle sprains are a common injury in horseback riders. They can prevent athletes from being able to ride. Ankle sprains often happen when a rider falls or is thrown from a horse and lands improperly, causing the ankle to roll in (invert). An ankle sprain is more likely to happen if a rider had a previous sprain, especially a recent one.

Treatment begins with rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE). Athletes should see a doctor as soon as possible if they cannot walk on the injured ankle or have severe pain. X-rays may be needed.

Wrist injuries

Wrist injuries usually happen when a rider falls onto an outstretched hand. Both bone and ligament injuries in the wrist can occur with a fall.

Treatment begins with RICE. Athletes should see a doctor if their wrists are swollen or painful the next day. X-rays may be needed.

Tips to Choosing a Sports Program

Childhood sports programs have grown significantly in recent years. Millions of boys and girls are now involved in Little League baseball, youth soccer, community basketball leagues, competitive swimming teams, and similar types of activities. Happily, sports programs are becoming increasingly avail­able for girls, whose need for such activities and whose ability to participate is equal to that of boys. If your own child joins one or more of these programs, he will have a won­derful opportunity for fun and fitness. At the same time, however, a youngster poorly matched to a sports team—or who must deal with unrealistic expecta­tions from a parent, a coach, or even himself—can have a very negative sports experience, filled with stress and frustration.

Before your child enters a youth sports program, evaluate his objectives as well as your own. Although both child and parent may fantasize about using this as a stepping-stone toward becoming a professional athlete or an Olympic champion, few participants have the talent and dedication to reach those heights. Even more modest goals are far from guaranteed: Only one in four out­standing elementary school athletes becomes a sports standout in high school. Only one in more than 6,600 high school football players will ever rise to the professional football ranks.

Nevertheless, there are other, more important reasons for your child to par­ticipate in organized sports. Sports can contribute to physical fitness and de­velop basic motor skills. Also, participation in the sports activity that best suits your child’s capabilities can develop leadership skills, boost self-confi­dence, teach the importance of teamwork and sportsmanship, and help him deal with both success and failure. In addition, by participating in sports, chil­dren often find exercise enjoyable and are more likely to establish lifelong habits of healthful exercise. However, not all sports meet the requirements for promoting overall fitness. Also, there are many ways for children to be fit and become active without participating in a team sport.

Talk with your child about his interest in youth sports, and what his reasons may be for wanting (or in some cases, not wanting) to participate. His goals may be different from yours. Most children—particularly the younger ones—might say that they simply want to have fun. Others may add that they want to be active and hope to spend time and share experiences with friends. You may have all of these goals, too, along with the desire that your youngster de­velop an appreciation for sports and fitness.

If either you or your child places winning at or near the top of your list of goals—and if you put pressure on your child to win a tournament or kick a goal—your priorities are out of line. Winning certainly adds to the fun and ex­citement of sports, but it should not be a primary goal.

Basketball and Volleyball

Acute and overuse injuries are common in jumping sports likebasketball and volleyball. Acute injuries include bruises(contusions); cuts and scrapes (lacerations); ankle, knee, or finger sprains or fractures; shoulder dislocations; eye injuries; and concussions. Overuse injuries include patellar tendonitis (also called jumper’s knee) or Osgood-Schlatter disease, spondylolysis (stress fracture of the spine), rotator cuff tendinopathy, stress fractures, and shin splints.

The following is information from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) about how to prevent basketball and volleyball injuries. Also included is an overview of common basketball and volleyball injuries.

Injury prevention and safety tips

  • Sports physical exam. Athletes should have a preparticipation physical evaluation (PPE) to make sure they are ready to safely begin the sport. The best time for a PPE is about 4 to 6 weeks before the beginning of the season. Athletes also should see their doctors for regular health well-child checkups.
  • Fitness. Athletes should maintain a good fitness level during the season and off-season. Preseason training should allow time for general conditioning and sport-specific conditioning. Also important are proper warm-up and cool-down exercises.
  • Technique. Athletes should learn and practice safe techniques for performing the skills that are integral to their sport. Athletes should work with coaches and athletic trainers on achieving proper technique.
  • Equipment. Safety gear should fit properly and be well maintained.
    • Shoes should be in good condition, appropriate for the surface and laces tied.
    • Ankle braces or tape applied by a certified athletic trainer can prevent or reduce the frequency of ankle sprains.
    • Knee pads have been shown to reduce knee abrasions and contusions (bruises).
    • Buddy tape (tape around the injured finger and the one beside it) can prevent reinjury to an injured finger. X-rays should be obtained in all “jammed” fingers.
    • Mouth guards prevent dental injuries.
    • Protective eyewear. Glasses or goggles should be made with polycarbonate or a similar material. The material should conform to the standards of the American Society for Testing and Materials.
  • Environment. A safe playing area is clean and clear. Goalposts should be padded.
  • Emergency plan. Teams should develop and practice an emergency plan so that team members know their roles in emergency situations. The plan would include first aid and emergency contact information. All members of the team should receive a written copy each season. Parents also should be familiar with the plan and review it with their children.

Common injuries

Ankle sprains

Ankle sprains, one of the most common injuries in jumping sports, can prevent athletes from being able to play. They often happen when a player lands from a jump onto another player’s foot, causing the ankle to roll in (invert). They are more likely to happen if a player had a previous sprain, especially a recent one.

Treatment begins with rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE). Athletes should see a doctor as soon as possible if they cannot walk on the injured ankle or have severe pain. X-rays are often needed to look for a fracture.

Regular icing (20 minutes) helps with pain and swelling. Weight bearing and exercises to regain range of motion, strength, and balance are key factors to getting back to sports. Tape and ankle braces can prevent or reduce the frequency of ankle sprains. Tape and an ankle brace can also support the ankle, enabling an athlete to return to activity more quickly.

Finger injuries

Finger injuries occur when the finger is struck by the ball or an opponent’s hand or body. The “jammed finger” is often overlooked because of the myth that nothing needs to be done, even if it is broken. If fractures that involve a joint or tendon are not properly treated, permanent damage can occur.

Any injury that is associated with a dislocation, deformity, inability to straighten or bend the finger, or significant pain should be examined by a doctor. X-rays are often needed to look for a fracture. Buddy tape may be all that is needed to return to sports; however, this cannot be assumed without an exam and x-ray. Swelling often persists for weeks to months after a finger joint sprain. Ice, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and range of motion exercises are important for treatment.

Knee injuries

Knee injuries commonly occur from cutting, pivoting, landing from a jump, or contact with another athlete. If the athlete feels a pop or shift in the knee, then it’s most likely a ligament injury or knee cap dislocation. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are more common in females than males.

Treatment begins with RICE. Athletes should see a doctor as soon as possible if they cannot walk on the injured knee. Athletes should also see a doctor if the knee is swollen, a pop is felt at the time of injury, or the knee feels loose or like it will give way.

Athletes who return to play with a torn ACL risk further joint damage. Athletes with an ACL tear are usually unable to return to their sport until after reconstruction and rehabilitation.

Patellar tendonitis (jumper’s knee) is a common overuse injury seen from repetitive jumping and landing from jumps. It causes pain in the front of the knee with jumping, sometimes associated with a bump, and can be severe. It is treated with ice, stretching, NSAIDs, and relative rest.

Shoulder injuries

Shoulder injuries in volleyball can occur from repetitive hitting (spiking) or serving. Shoulder injuries in basketball can occur from diving or rebounding.

Athletes usually feel the shoulder pop out of joint when their shoulders are dislocated. Most of the time the shoulder goes back into the joint on its own; this is called a subluxation (partial dislocation). If the athlete requires help to get it back in, it is called a dislocation. Risk of dislocation recurrence is high for youth participating in these sports. Shoulder strengthening exercises, braces and, in some cases, surgery may be recommended to prevent recurrence.

Pain from repetitive use is common in volleyball, usually due to weak muscles of the shoulder blade and trunk. Often rehabilitation exercises and rest from excessive hitting or serving are all that is needed.

Eye injuries

Eye injuries commonly occur in sports that involve balls but can also result from a finger or another object in the eye. Any injury that affects vision or is associated with swelling or blood inside the eye should be evaluated by an ophthalmologist. The AAP recommends that children involved in organized sports wear appropriate protective eyewear.

Head injuries

Concussions can occur after an injury to the head or neck contacting the ground, equipment, or another athlete. A concussion is any injury to the brain that disrupts normal brain function on a temporary or permanent basis.

The signs and symptoms of a concussion range from subtle to obvious and usually happen right after the injury but may take hours to days to show up. Athletes who have had concussions may report feeling normal before their brain has fully recovered. With most concussions, the player is not knocked out or unconscious.

Prematurely returning to play after a concussion can lead to another concussion or even death. An athlete with a history of concussion may be more susceptible to another injury than an athlete with no history of concussion.

About Running

 Running, as a sport, can involve a number of different forms, including the following:

  • Cross-country. A sport in which teams of runners compete on long-distance road running courses.
  • Track and field. A sport that includes track events, like sprints, distance running, hurdles, and relays, and field events that involve throwing and jumping.
  • Marathon. A long-distance (about 26 miles) road running event.
  • Triathlon. A 3-part event that includes swimming, cycling, and running. Distances vary depending on the age of the athletes.

Running injuries are common and there can be a variety of causes. Running injuries can be caused by improper training (for example, doing too much too fast), mechanical problems (for example, high arch or flat foot), or previous injuries. Other causes may be the environment (for example, uneven or hilly terrain; hot or cold weather conditions) or previous injuries. While not all injures can be prevented, the risk of injuries can be reduced.

The following is information from the American Academy of Pediatrics about how to prevent running injuries. Also included is a list of common running injuries.

General injury prevention and safety tips

Sports physical exam. Athletes should have a preparticipation physical evaluation (PPE) to make sure they are ready to safely begin the sport. The best time for a PPE is about 4 to 6 weeks before the beginning of the season. Athletes also should see their doctors for routine well-child checkups.

Fitness. Athletes should maintain a good fitness level during the season and off-season. Preseason training should allow time for general conditioning and sport- specific conditioning. Also important are proper warm- up and cool-down exercises.

Technique. Athletes should learn and practice safe techniques for performing the skills that are integral to their sport. Athletes should work with coaches and athletic trainers on achieving proper technique.

Nutrition. Eating healthy and the right amount of calories is important. A good rule to follow is to eat an extra 100 calories for every mile run.

Strength Training

 Strength training (or resistance training) uses a resistance to increase an individual’s ability to exert force. It involves the use of weight machines, free weights, bands or tubing, or the individual’s own body weight. This is not the same as Olympic lifting, power lifting, or body building, which requires the use of ballistic movements and maximum lifts and is not recommended for children.

The following are answers from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) to common questions about strength training.

What are the risks of strength training?

The risks of participating in an unsupervised strength training program include injury to the discs and growth plates of the spine and even occasionally death from weights landing on the chest wall. A well-supervised program has a coach-to-student ratio of 1:10 or less and proper certification of the instructor. Significant injuries are rare in well-supervised programs, but can include stress fractures of the shoulder (osteolysis) or spine (spondylolysis), muscle strains, disc herniation, and tendinitis. Misuse of anabolic steroids to improve physique is another possible risk.

What are the benefits of strength training?

Strength training improves muscle strength and stamina. Regular participation in strength training improves cardiac (heart) health, body composition, and bone mineral density, and decreases cholesterol levels. It is particularly helpful foroverweight (obese) youth because it increases lean body mass and metabolic rate without the extra stress on the body. In some sports (like swimming or tennis), strength training may prevent common rotator cuff problems. Research also shows a possible reduction in knee injuries in girls when strength training is combined with a plyometric (jumping) program.

Who should not participate in strength training?

Strength training is not recommended for people with the following:

  • Uncontrolled high blood pressure
  • Seizure disorders
  • Prior history of childhood cancers treated with chemotherapy

Children with complex congenital heart disease should get an OK by a pediatric cardiologist before starting a strength training program.

When can my child start strength training?

The proper age is based on the following:

  • Maturity (if the child has reached certain developmental milestones)
  • The type of sport the child wants to play
  • A desire to participate
  • The discipline to train several times a week
  • The ability to listen and follow directions

Most young athletes have these characteristics and can maintain proper balance and postural control around 7 or 8 years of age.

What are the key components in a strength training program?

To get the most out of strength training, athletes should

  • Include aerobic training along with strength training.
  • Train 2 to 3 times a week for 20 to 30 minutes.
  • Warm up and cool down for at least 10 minutes.
  • Practice all lifts without weights to make sure form and technique are correct. As techniques are mastered, weights can be slowly added.
  • Work all major muscle groups including the core. Joints should be moved through a full range of motion.
  • Do 2 to 3 sets of 8 to 15 repetitions.
  • Train for a minimum of 8 weeks.
  • Gradually increase weights by no more than 10% per week.

How can injuries be prevented?

To prevent injuries, keep the following in mind:

  • Use proper techniques when lifting.
  • Adjust machines for height.
  • Always wear proper clothing and closed-toe shoes with good traction.
  • Always weight train with proper supervision and spotting.
  • Start each session with a 10- to 15-minute warm-up. Avoid rapid breathing (hyperventilation), bearing down, or holding your breath while lifting.
  • No 1-repetition maximums, maximum weights, or ballistic maneuvers should be performed before reaching skeletal maturity.
  • Stop lifting at once if pain is felt.

Tips for Football

 Football is a fast-paced, aggressive, contact team sport that is very popular among America’s youth. Football programs exist for players as young as 6 years all the way through high school, college, and professional.

Injuries are common because of the large number of athletes participating. However, the risk of injuries can be reduced. The following is information from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) about how to prevent football injuries. Also included is an overview of common football injuries.

Injury prevention and safety tips

  • Supervision. Athletes should be supervised and have easy access to drinking water and have body weights measured before and after practice to gauge water loss.
  • Equipment. Safety gear should fit properly and be well maintained.
    • Shoes. Football shoes should be appropriate for the surface (turf versus cleats). Laces should be tied securely.
    • Pants. Football pants should fit properly so that the knee pads cover the knee cap, hip pads cover the hip bones, the tailbone pad covers the tailbone, and thigh pads cover a good share of the thigh. Pads should not be removed from the pants.
    • Pads. Shoulder pads should be sized by chest measurement. They must be large enough to extend ¾ to 1 inch beyond the acromioclavicular joint. Athletes should have adequate range of motion, and the pads should not ride up into the neck opening when raising the arms.
    • Helmets. The helmet should be fitted so that the eyebrows are 1 to 1½ inches below the helmet’s front rim. The back of the helmet should cover the back of the head, and the athlete’s ear openings should be in the center of the helmet ear openings. Jaw pads should be snug against the athlete’s jaw. The chin strap should be centered over the chin and tightened to prevent movement of the helmet on the head. The helmet padding and chin strap should be tight enough to prevent any rotation of the helmet on the head. Face masks should be attached to the helmets. Additional protection can be provided by a clear Plexiglas shield.
    • Mouth guards can help prevent oral or facial injuries but not concussions.
  • Environment. A safe playing field is level and cleared of debris, equipment, and other obstacles. Field goal posts should be padded.
  • Emergency plan. Teams should develop and practice an emergency plan so that team members know their roles in emergency situations. The plan would include first aid and emergency contact information. All members of the team should receive a written copy each season. Parents also should be familiar with the plan and review it with their children.

Common injuries

Ankle injuries

Ankle sprains are some of the most common injuries in football. They can prevent athletes from being able to play. Ankle sprains often happen when an athlete gets blocked or tackled with the foot firmly in place, causing the ankle to roll in (invert). An ankle sprain is more likely to happen if an athlete had a previous sprain, especially a recent one.

Treatment begins with rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE). Athletes should see a doctor as soon as possible if they cannot walk on the injured ankle or have severe pain. X-rays may be needed.

Regular icing (20 minutes) helps with pain and swelling. Weight bearing and exercises to regain range of motion, strength, and balance are key factors to getting back to sports. Tape and ankle braces can prevent or reduce the frequency of ankle sprains and enable an athlete to return to activity more quickly.

Finger injuries

Finger injuries occur when the finger is struck by the ball or an opponent’s hand or body. The “jammed finger” is often overlooked because of the myth that nothing needs to be done, even if it is broken. If fractures that involve a joint or tendon are not properly treated, permanent damage can occur.

Any injury that is associated with a dislocation, deformity, inability to straighten or bend the finger, or significant pain should be examined by a doctor. X-rays may be needed. Buddy tape may be all that is needed to return to sports; however, this cannot be assumed without an exam and x-ray. Swelling often persists for weeks to months after a finger joint sprain. Ice, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and range of motion exercises are important for treatment.

Knee injuries

Knee injuries commonly occur from cutting, pivoting, landing from a jump, or contact with another athlete. If the athlete feels a pop or shift in the knee, then it’s most likely a ligament injury.

Treatment begins with RICE. Athletes should see a doctor as soon as possible if they cannot walk on the injured knee. Athletes should also see a doctor if the knee is swollen, a pop is felt at the time of injury, or the knee feels loose or like it will give way.

Medial collateral ligament sprains can be treated in a hinged brace and allowed to return to play. Athletes who return to play with a torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) risk further joint damage. Athletes with an ACL tear should not return to their sport until the ligament has been reconstructed and they have been cleared by the surgeon.

Shoulder injuries

Shoulder injuries can occur from diving for a ball or from blocking or tackling.

Athletes usually feel their shoulder pop out of place when it is dislocated. Most of the time the shoulder goes back into the joint on its own; this is called a subluxation (partial dislocation). If the athlete requires help to get it back in, it is called adislocation. Risk of dislocation recurrence is high for youth participating in football. Shoulder strengthening exercises, stabilization braces and, in many cases, surgery may be recommended to prevent recurrence.

Pain from repetitive use is common in football, usually due to weak muscles of the back and trunk. Often rehabilitation exercises and rest from excessive blocking or tackling drills are all that is necessary to treat this type of pain.

Eye injuries

Eye injuries commonly occur in football usually due to a finger poking through the face mask. Any injury that affects vision or is associated with swelling or blood inside the eye should be evaluated by an ophthalmologist. The AAP recommends that children involved in organized sports wear appropriate protective eyewear.

Low back pain

Spondylolysis, stress fractures of the bones in the lower spine, is due to overuse from high-impact and repetitive arching of the back. Symptoms include low back pain that feels worse with back extension activities. Treatment of spondylolysis includes rest and physical therapy to improve flexibility and low back and core (trunk) strength, and possibly a back brace. Athletes are advised to limit repetitive arching of the spine (blocking and weight lifting) and high-impact activities (running and jumping). Athletes with low back pain for longer than 2 weeks should see a doctor. X-rays are usually normal so other tests are often needed to diagnose spondylolysis. Successful treatment requires early recognition of the problem and timely treatment.

Head injuries

Concussions occur if the head or neck hits the ground, equipment, or another athlete. A concussion is any injury to the brain that disrupts normal brain function on a temporary or permanent basis.

The signs and symptoms of a concussion range from subtle to obvious and usually happen right after the injury but may take hours to days to show up. Athletes who have had concussions may report feeling normal before their brain has fully recovered. With most concussions, the player is not knocked out or unconscious.

Prematurely returning to play after a concussion can lead to another concussion or even death. An athlete with a history of concussion is more susceptible to another injury than an athlete with no history of concussion. If a concussion has occurred, it is again important to make sure the helmet was fitted properly. If the concussion occurred due to the player leading with the head to make a tackle, he should be strongly discouraged from continuing that practice.