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Monthly Archives: November 2016

Golf

In the past, golf was seen by many as a leisure activity for people with extra time and money to spend. Today golf is seen as a sport, and one that appeals to younger participants.

While golf is not thought of as a dangerous sport, the long hours of practice and the physical demands of learning and playing the game can lead to injuries. While not all injuries can be prevented, the risk of injuries can be reduced.

The following is a chart from the American Academy of Pediatrics of common golf injuries and an overview of symptoms and treatment. Also included are diagrams of 2 exercises.

Common injuries, symptoms, and treatment

Golf injuries can be divided into those that occur from swinging a club and those that occur from the miles of walking on a golf course. To prevent injury, athletes must have an understanding of the stresses golf puts on the body and must prepare their bodies to handle these stresses.

Most golf injuries develop over time rather than as a result of a single event. It is important to recognize the early signs of an injury and seek treatment before the condition gets worse.

Also, a general warm-up before practicing or playing can help prevent injury. This should consist of exercises that increase circulation to the muscles and stretch the shoulders, back, hips, and legs. It also helps to take warm-up swings with a weighted club (or 2 clubs) and hit practice shots when possible.

Exercises

Rotational stretch and warm-up

This is a dynamic stretch for shoulders, back, and hips and a good warm-up that can easily be done at the golf course or practice range.

  1. Stand while holding club behind upper back.
  2. Rotate back and forth while keeping feet planted.
  3. Try to feel stretch in shoulders, spine, and hips.

Hip/low back flexibility

This exercise improves flexibility in hips and low back; increases rotation and ability to “turn” when hitting ball.

  1. Lie on back; cross legs.
  2. Use top leg to push opposite knee to floor; keep shoulders flat and pelvis on the floor.

Martial Arts

More than 6 million children in the United States participate in martial arts. Martial arts are known to improve social skills, discipline, and respect in children. Children can also improve their abilities to concentrate and focus on activities, as well as bettering their motor skills and self-confidence. Martial arts can be fun and beneficial at any age.

While the martial arts are relatively safe, injuries can happen because there is physical contact between opponents. The following is information from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) about how to prevent martial arts injuries. Also included is an overview of martial arts forms.

Injury prevention and safety tips

  • Instructors. Experienced instructors will teach at a level appropriate for your child’s age and maturity. Lessons should emphasize technique and self-control. Experienced instructors will carefully advance your child through more complex training. Lessons should also be fun. Visit a variety of instructors and ask about their experiences with young children and their teaching philosophy.
  • Technique. An instructor’s emphasis on technique and self-control is very important in limiting the risk for injury. Children should learn to punch and kick with their hands and feet in proper position and using the appropriate amount of force. Kicks and punches with the hand or foot in the wrong position can cause injuries to fingers and toes. Punches or kicks that are too hard can cause pain or bruises. Contact to the head should be discouraged.
    • Equipment. Safety gear should fit properly and be well maintained.
    • Headgear. When the rules allow, protective headgear should be worn for sparring or for activities with risk of falling, such as high jumps or flying kicks.
    • Body pads can help protect against scrapes and bruises and limit the pain from kicks and punches. Arm pads, shin pads, and chest protection for sparring.
    • Mouth guards.
  • Environment. Mats and floors should be safe to play on. Gaps between mats can cause sprained ankles. Wet or worn floors can cause slips and falls.

Common injuries

Scrapes and bruises

Scrapes and bruises are by far the most common injuries seen in the martial arts. They often result from falls onto mats, kicks and punches that are “off target,” or when proper padding is not worn. All scrapes and cuts should be washed with soap and water and bandaged before returning to activity. Bruises are best treated with ice applied for 20 to 30 minutes. They will slowly get better and fade over 2 to 3 days.

Sprains and strains

Sprains and strains become more common as children get older. Ankles, knees, and elbows are the joints most often sprained. Muscle strains usually happen in the front (quadriceps) or the back (hamstrings) of the thigh. Most knee and ankle sprains occur either by landing awkwardly after a jump or by improper contact with a partner. Elbow and wrist injuries happen with falling, punching, or blocking. Muscle strains can occur with trying to kick too high or punch too hard without using correct form or having properly warmed up.

Finger and toe injuries

Finger and toe injuries are often due to the large amount of kicking and punching of padded targets. They may also happen when sparring with a partner. These injuries are usually the result of poor kicking and punching technique. Contact with the target should never be initiated with the fingers or toes. Jammed fingers result from holding the hand in the wrong position (fingers spread) or if the toes are used to hit the target(instead of the heel or top of the foot).

Any injury that is associated with a dislocation, deformity, inability to straighten or bend the finger, or significant pain should be examined by a doctor. X-rays are usually needed. Buddy tape may be all that is needed to return to sports; however, this cannot be assumed without an exam and x-ray. Swelling often persists for weeks to months after a finger joint sprain. Ice, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and range of motion exercises are important for treatment.

Head injuries

Concussions can occur in martial arts if children fall and strike their heads, or if they are kicked or punched in the head. A concussion is any injury to the brain that disrupts normal brain function on a temporary or permanent basis.

The signs and symptoms of a concussion range from subtle to obvious and usually happen right after the injury but may take hours to days to show up. Athletes who have had concussions may report feeling normal before their brain has fully recovered. With most concussions, the player is not knocked out or unconscious.

Prematurely returning to play after a concussion can lead to another concussion or even death. An athlete with a history of concussion is more susceptible to another injury than an athlete with no history of concussion. Once a concussion has occurred, it is important to make sure the helmet is fitted properly. If the concussion occurred due to the player leading with the head to make a tackle, he should be strongly discouraged from continuing that practice.

All concussions are serious, and all athletes with suspected concussions should not return to play until they see a doctor. The AAP recommends children avoid sports that reward blows to the head.

Types of martial arts

The term martial arts can be used to describe any number of styles or disciplines of self-defense practices. There are many different styles practiced around the world, with the most popular forms being karate, tae kwon do, and judo.

  • Karate (KAH-rah-teh) means “empty hand,” as it
    is normally practiced without weapons.
    Karate is a traditional Japanese form. The hands and feet are trained and prepared for use in a weaponless form of self-defense.
  • Tae kwon do (tahy-kwon-doh) means “the way of foot and fist.” This is a traditional Korean martial art. It is also the most popular. This form highlights discipline, respect, and personal growth and focuses on the use of the feet for powerful kicks in self-defense.
  • Judo (joo-doh) means “gentle way” and is known for a variety of throwing techniques. It uses many methods to control an opponent while on the ground. In many ways it is more similar to wrestling than to the other martial arts.
  • Kung fu (kung-foo) most commonly translates to “hard work” and is one of the oldest forms of martial arts. The term may be used to describe all of the hundreds of Chinese martial arts. Kung fu is mainly a “stand-up” form of the martial arts, known for its powerful blocks. Wushu is the most popular and modern form of kung fu.
  • Aikido (eye-key-do) means “way of harmony.” This Japanese martial art is known as a throwing style. It teaches a nonaggressive approach to self-defense, focusing on joint locks, throws, and restraining techniques, rather than kicks and punches. While aikido may be learned at any age, it is especially popular among women and older adults. Aikido is not practiced as a competitive sport.
  • Jujitsu (joo-jit-soo) means “the art of softness” and emphasizes techniques that allow a smaller fighter to overcome a bigger, stronger opponent. First practiced in Japan, jujutsu is considered a ground fighting or grappling style of the martial arts. Many of the forms have been incorporated into other martial arts such as judo, karate, and aikido. The arm lock and submission techniques have been taught to police all over the world.

Horseback Riding

Horseback riding (equestrian) is a common activity in the United States; about 30 million people go horseback riding every year. Unlike other sports, the risk of injury is highest for the most inexperienced riders. As riders gain experience, they learn how to avoid injury as they learn to properly handle the horse.

Most horseback riding injuries happen when a rider falls or is thrown from a horse. Falls are more likely to produce serious injuries if the horse is moving quickly or if the rider is dragged or crushed by the horse. However, not all injuries happen while riding. The most serious injuries while off the horse are from horse kicks.

The following is information from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) about how to prevent horseback riding injuries. Also included is an overview of common horseback riding injuries.

Injury prevention and safety tips

  • Stable conditions. Proper care of the horses is important. Stables should be well maintained and staffed with trained professionals.
  • Horse safety. Riders should always be careful around horses and should be instructed to never walk behind a horse, or make sudden movements or loud noises near them. Riders should never ride unsupervised or ride horses with unknown temperaments. A trained professional should check that all equipment is in good working order. Girth strap, stirrup leathers, and reins should be securely fastened before children are allowed to ride.
  • Equipment. Safety gear should fit properly and be well maintained.
    • Helmets should be worn by riders every time they ride. Helmets should meet the standards of the American Society for Testing and Materials and be certified by Safety Equipment Institute.
    • Riding boots should be sturdy, have a small heel, and completely cover the ankle.
    • Saddles and stirrups should fit the rider correctly. Young children and inexperienced riders should use safety stirrups (that break away if a rider falls off the horse) or toe stoppers (covers to keep the foot from sliding through the stirrup).
    • Protective vests can reduce the impact of a fall, especially for inexperienced riders.

Common injuries

Head injuries

Concussions in horseback riding usually occur when a riders’ head hits the ground after a severe fall. A concussion is any injury to the brain that disrupts normal brain function on a temporary or permanent basis.

The signs and symptoms of a concussion range from subtle to obvious and usually happen right after the injury but may take hours to days to show up. Athletes who have had concussions may report feeling normal before their brain has fully recovered. With most concussions, the rider is not knocked out or unconscious.

Prematurely returning to riding after a concussion can lead to another concussion or even death. An athlete with a history of concussion is more susceptible to another injury than an athlete with no history of concussion. Head injuries are usually more severe when helmets are not worn.

All concussions are serious, and all athletes with suspected concussions should not return to riding until they see a doctor.

Ankle sprains

Ankle sprains are a common injury in horseback riders. They can prevent athletes from being able to ride. Ankle sprains often happen when a rider falls or is thrown from a horse and lands improperly, causing the ankle to roll in (invert). An ankle sprain is more likely to happen if a rider had a previous sprain, especially a recent one.

Treatment begins with rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE). Athletes should see a doctor as soon as possible if they cannot walk on the injured ankle or have severe pain. X-rays may be needed.

Wrist injuries

Wrist injuries usually happen when a rider falls onto an outstretched hand. Both bone and ligament injuries in the wrist can occur with a fall.

Treatment begins with RICE. Athletes should see a doctor if their wrists are swollen or painful the next day. X-rays may be needed.

Tips to Choosing a Sports Program

Childhood sports programs have grown significantly in recent years. Millions of boys and girls are now involved in Little League baseball, youth soccer, community basketball leagues, competitive swimming teams, and similar types of activities. Happily, sports programs are becoming increasingly avail­able for girls, whose need for such activities and whose ability to participate is equal to that of boys. If your own child joins one or more of these programs, he will have a won­derful opportunity for fun and fitness. At the same time, however, a youngster poorly matched to a sports team—or who must deal with unrealistic expecta­tions from a parent, a coach, or even himself—can have a very negative sports experience, filled with stress and frustration.

Before your child enters a youth sports program, evaluate his objectives as well as your own. Although both child and parent may fantasize about using this as a stepping-stone toward becoming a professional athlete or an Olympic champion, few participants have the talent and dedication to reach those heights. Even more modest goals are far from guaranteed: Only one in four out­standing elementary school athletes becomes a sports standout in high school. Only one in more than 6,600 high school football players will ever rise to the professional football ranks.

Nevertheless, there are other, more important reasons for your child to par­ticipate in organized sports. Sports can contribute to physical fitness and de­velop basic motor skills. Also, participation in the sports activity that best suits your child’s capabilities can develop leadership skills, boost self-confi­dence, teach the importance of teamwork and sportsmanship, and help him deal with both success and failure. In addition, by participating in sports, chil­dren often find exercise enjoyable and are more likely to establish lifelong habits of healthful exercise. However, not all sports meet the requirements for promoting overall fitness. Also, there are many ways for children to be fit and become active without participating in a team sport.

Talk with your child about his interest in youth sports, and what his reasons may be for wanting (or in some cases, not wanting) to participate. His goals may be different from yours. Most children—particularly the younger ones—might say that they simply want to have fun. Others may add that they want to be active and hope to spend time and share experiences with friends. You may have all of these goals, too, along with the desire that your youngster de­velop an appreciation for sports and fitness.

If either you or your child places winning at or near the top of your list of goals—and if you put pressure on your child to win a tournament or kick a goal—your priorities are out of line. Winning certainly adds to the fun and ex­citement of sports, but it should not be a primary goal.