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About Running

 Running, as a sport, can involve a number of different forms, including the following:

  • Cross-country. A sport in which teams of runners compete on long-distance road running courses.
  • Track and field. A sport that includes track events, like sprints, distance running, hurdles, and relays, and field events that involve throwing and jumping.
  • Marathon. A long-distance (about 26 miles) road running event.
  • Triathlon. A 3-part event that includes swimming, cycling, and running. Distances vary depending on the age of the athletes.

Running injuries are common and there can be a variety of causes. Running injuries can be caused by improper training (for example, doing too much too fast), mechanical problems (for example, high arch or flat foot), or previous injuries. Other causes may be the environment (for example, uneven or hilly terrain; hot or cold weather conditions) or previous injuries. While not all injures can be prevented, the risk of injuries can be reduced.

The following is information from the American Academy of Pediatrics about how to prevent running injuries. Also included is a list of common running injuries.

General injury prevention and safety tips

Sports physical exam. Athletes

Strength Training

 Strength training (or resistance training) uses a resistance to increase an individual’s ability to exert force. It involves the use of weight machines, free weights, bands or tubing, or the individual’s own body weight. This is not the same as Olympic lifting, power lifting, or body building, which requires the use of ballistic movements and maximum lifts and is not recommended for children.

The following are answers from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) to common questions about strength training.

What are the risks of strength training?

The risks of participating in an unsupervised strength training program include injury to the discs and growth plates of the spine and even occasionally death from weights landing on the chest wall. A well-supervised program has a coach-to-student ratio of 1:10 or less and proper certification of the instructor. Significant injuries are rare in well-supervised programs, but can include stress fractures of the shoulder (osteolysis) or spine (spondylolysis), muscle strains, disc herniation, and tendinitis. Misuse of anabolic steroids to improve physique is another possible risk.

What are the benefits of strength training?

Strength training improves muscle strength and

Tips for Football

 Football is a fast-paced, aggressive, contact team sport that is very popular among America’s youth. Football programs exist for players as young as 6 years all the way through high school, college, and professional.

Injuries are common because of the large number of athletes participating. However, the risk of injuries can be reduced. The following is information from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) about how to prevent football injuries. Also included is an overview of common football injuries.

Injury prevention and safety tips

  • Supervision. Athletes should be supervised and have easy access to drinking water and have body weights measured before and after practice to gauge water loss.
  • Equipment. Safety gear should fit properly and be well maintained.
    • Shoes. Football shoes should be appropriate for the surface (turf versus cleats). Laces should be tied securely.
    • Pants. Football pants should fit properly so that the knee pads cover the knee cap, hip pads cover the hip bones, the tailbone pad covers the tailbone, and thigh pads cover a good share of the thigh. Pads should not be removed from the pants.
    • Pads. Shoulder pads should be sized by chest measurement. They

How caddies help elite golfers stay in the zone

The study by sport psychology researchers at the University of Lincoln, Leeds Beckett University, and St Mary’s University in the UK, and University of Canberra in Australia, found that as well as carrying the player’s bag, caddies can help their players perform at their peak — achieving so-called ‘flow states’ — by offering vital psychological support and encouragement throughout the round.

The findings, published in the Elsevier journal ‘Psychology of Sport and Exercise’, could lead to new ways of studying and understanding flow states within golf and sport more generally.

Flow, often referred to as being ‘in the zone’, is the mental state athletes reach when they are fully immersed in their discipline and feel in control of what they are doing, even in the most personally challenging situations. Importantly, athletes in flow often perform at the peak of their abilities, meaning that golfers who win major tournaments are more likely to have been in this ‘zone’.

The study indicated that caddies influenced golfers’ flow states by helping their player select targets, maintain concentration and avoid distractions, and preserve confidence after setbacks such as missed putts. They also provided positive feedback after shots, reinforced the

New sports technology provides a GPS alternative

Instead SABEL Labs has developed SABEL Sense, an alternative to GPS for tracking running speeds and distances and which is set to be a game changer in the sports performance and wearable technology industries.

SABEL Sense is timely, as sporting organisations in particular consider their options. The AFL recently announced it had switched its GPS provider.

SABEL Labs project manager and research fellow Dr Jono Neville developed a model which presents accelerometers as a viable alternative to GPS in the quest for improved athlete assessment techniques.

His research, titled ‘A model for comparing over-ground running speed and accelerometer derived step rate in elite level athletes’, is detailed in Sensors Journal, which is currently published online and will be in print next month.

Dr Neville said while Global Positioning Systems (GPS) are an important tool for workload management, the devices have limitations when it comes to changes in speed and direction and when they are used indoors, due to their reliance on external satellites.

He said he compared inertial sensor data with GPS data, collected simultaneously from Brisbane Lions AFL players during 2009, to create a model which was highly accurate for running speeds.

Mixed martial arts bloodier but less dangerous than boxing

Researchers at the U of A’s Glen Sather Sports Medicine Clinic reviewed a decade’s worth of data from medical examinations following mixed martial arts and boxing matches and found that MMA fighters face a slightly higher risk of minor injuries. Boxers, however, are more likely to experience serious harm from concussions and other head trauma, loss of consciousness, eye injuries, smashed noses and broken bones.

“Yes, you’re more likely to get injured if you’re participating in mixed martial arts, but the injury severity is less overall than boxing,” explained lead author Shelby Karpman, a sports medicine physician at the Glen Sather clinic. “Most of the blood you see in mixed martial arts is from bloody noses or facial cuts; it doesn’t tend to be as severe but looks a lot worse than it actually is.”

Research from ringside

The research offers a first-of-its-kind glimpse into the dangers of the two combative sports in Canada, and is the direct result of Karpman’s quarter-century of experience as a ringside physician conducting post-fight exams, which are mandatory in both sports.

In this study, Karpman and U of A Faculty of Rehabilitation Medicine colleagues Leah Phillips, Ziling Qin

Adapting soccer training to age

The Plos One scientific journal, published by the Public Library of Science and which deals mainly with basic research into any subject relating to science and medicine, has recently published the paper ‘Number of Players and Relative Pitch Area per Player: Comparing Their Influence on Heart Rate and Physical Demands in Under-12 and Under-13 soccer Players’. In this work, researchers at the UPV/EHU’s Faculty of Education and Sports have analysed how various soccer training exercises affect physical and physiological aspects in the under 12s (U12) and under 13s (U13).

This training method using so-called small-sided games (or long ones, depending on the dimensions and number of players) is very widespread in different sports. Small-sided games or ‘game-based training’ are sports competitions or game-based training generally played by a smaller number of players and on smaller pitches (compared with 11-a-side soccer) in which all the internal logic components of the game are kept in a way that is adaptable and motivating for the players. These activities are applied extensively in the sphere of soccer training and are fundamental in the programmes to develop young players.

This research involved the combining of a different number of players

Research proposes new test on prosthetic legs

New research carried out at Bournemouth University, UK, investigates the use of lower-limb running prostheses (LLRPs) used in competitions by below-knee amputees. Due to significant controversy surrounding running prosthetic limbs in both the 2008 and 2012 Paralympic Games, this new research published in Cogent Engineering proposes new guidelines for prosthetic leg technology in international sporting events to prevent competitive advantage. The guidelines include the use of a dynamic drop jump technique to assess the quality of prosthetic legs as a new assessment strategy.

Dr Bryce Dyer, author of the research and Head of Research & Professional Practice, Department of Design & Engineering, Bournemouth University is the designer of performance prostheses used by elite cyclists in both the 2012 and 2016 Paralympic Games.

‘Prosthetic legs are a fascinating area of development for engineers and sports policy makers,’ said Dr Dyer. ‘They are only recently regulated, and more work needs to be done to understand the impact of different engineering solutions on sport itself. Previous research has been theoretical, or based on the impact of engineering on one particular athlete. This approach is more pragmatic, and more useful for policy makers.’

Detailed analysis of running amputee sprinting

Negative stereotypes affect female soccer performance

There continues to be a stereotype that women are inferior as soccer players. This view continues regardless of women’s success on the field. For example, the German woman’s team has won the World Cup twice, and the team is currently ranked 2nd in the FIFA world rankings (the men’s team is ranked 4th). Furthermore, there is less coverage of female soccer games and their salaries are far below their male counterparts.

Scientists from the Goethe University in Frankfurt, Germany, researched one stereotype in particular, namely: “females cannot play soccer.” This idea is still prevalent in Germany despite the success of the nation’s women’s national team. Germany is the only country whose men’s and women’s national teams have both won at World Cups.

Thirty-six teenage female soccer players who play at a competitive level from three soccer clubs in Frankfurt participated in the study. The participants were asked to read a fictitious article either about female inferiority in soccer or about the worldwide growing popularity of soccer. Then, they had to answer on a seven-point scale whether they agree with the statement “I think boys and girls play soccer equally well.”

The researchers then compared the

European soccer increasingly popular in the USA

The sports economists from Tübingen analyzed the interest of US citizens in European soccer competitions and Major League Soccer (MLS), the highest level soccer league in the USA and Canada, for the very first time. They focused on factors, which affect the demand for soccer tele-casts. Based on their estimations, the researchers were able, amongst others, to derive a preference ranking of the most popular international soccer competitions for the American TV audience.

Ever since the USA was nominated as the host country for FIFA’s Soccer World Cup in 1994, the interest in soccer has grown in the country. “This is well-known,” say the experts, “and is partly reflected in the numbers of people tuning in to soccer games on TV. Reported audience figures of English Premier League games, for example, have now exceeded those of regular season games of the National Hockey League (NHL), the top North American ice hockey league. However, they continue to lag far behind the leading sports in North America, i.e. American football, basketball and baseball.

The Tübingen study now surveys figures on different aspects of the American soccer market in detail for the first time. A US-wide representative sample of

Sports practice accounts for just one percent of the performance

“While practice is necessary for elite athletes to reach a high level of competition, after a certain point, the amount of practice essentially stops differentiating who makes it far and who makes it to the very top,” said Brooke Macnamara, assistant professor of psychological sciences at Case Western Reserve University and lead author of the study.

“Human performance is incredibly complex,” she said. “Multiple factors need to be considered, only one of which is practice.”

The study was published in Perspectives on Psychological Science, with researchers analyzing 52 data sets on the relationship between practice and performance.

Athletes, parents, recruiters and coaches can use the findings to weigh the importance of practice time and investment, researchers suggest.

Overall, practice explains about 18 percent of why some athletes perform better or worse than others — with 82 percent of this difference attributed to factors other than practice.

The findings counter the notion that anyone can become an expert or elite athlete with 10,000 hours of practice, a theory inspired by research from Florida State University professor Anders Ericsson in the early 1990s and popularized in the mainstream since.

“The concept of 10,000 hours

Are football players too obese?

Jeffrey Potteiger, professor of exercise science, and Maggie McGowan-Stinski, senior athletic training major, set out to determine how body size has changed in college and professional football players over the past 70 years.

“We started to take a look at providing the information that sports medicine personnel need to be aware of in order to effectively protect the health of the players under their care,” Potteiger said. “In football, the most at-risk athletes are the offensive and defensive linemen.”

The research duo determined that players have gained an average of between a quarter of a pound to one-and-a-quarter pound per year since 1942. This equates to an average 60-pound increase in body mass for offensive and defensive linemen.

Potteiger said the most common diseases resulting from excess body mass and body fat, especially around the abdominal area, include high blood pressure, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. He added that hitting the gym and eating more aren’t the only ways athletes are attempting to gain body mass.

“The use of growth promoting agents, such as anabolic steroids, growth hormones and insulin carry side effects that range from mild to severe,” Potteiger said. “The

A future for skiing in a warmer world

Chances are if you know anything about Norway, you know it’s a place where skiing was born.

Norse mythology describes gods and goddesses hunting on skis, and 4000-year-old petroglyphs from northern Norway include some of the earliest known drawings of people on skis. One of the most recognizable Norwegian paintings worldwide depicts two skiers in 1206 fleeing to safety with the country’s two-year-old prince, Håkon Håkonsson.

Over the centuries, skiing in Norway has evolved from a practical mode of winter transport to a sport that is deeply ingrained in Norwegian culture. Norwegians themselves like to say they enter the world uniquely prepared for their northern home — because they are “born with skis on their feet.”

But warmer weather due to climate change has made for less-than-stellar ski conditions in Norway and across Europe. Advances in snowmaking, where water is “seeded” with a protein from a bacterium that allows snow to be made at temperatures right around freezing, simply aren’t enough to keep up with the changing climate.

In response, a team of Norwegian researchers has been awarded a NOK 2.3 million grant from the Norwegian Ministry of Culture to develop a new approach

Water Polo

Water polo is an intense sport that requires athletes to tread water and swim for long periods. There is a version for younger athletes that allows them to stand in shallow water or hang onto the side of the pool, but this is illegal in competitive water polo.

Acute and overuse injuries are common in water polo. Acute injuries usually occur when guarding a player or wrestling for the ball. Overuse injuries are often the result of repeated swimming and throwing motions and treading water. As in many sports, the risk of injury increases with age due to the style of play, contact forces, and size of athletes. However, the risk of injuries can be reduced.

The following is information from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) about how to prevent water polo injuries. Also included is an overview of common injuries.

Injury prevention and safety tips

  • Sports physical exam. Athletes should have a preparticipation physical evaluation (PPE) to make sure they are ready to safely begin the sport. The best time for a PPE is about 4 to 6 weeks before the beginning of the season. Athletes also should see their doctors for

Soccer Safety Tips

Soccer (known as football outside the United States) is one of the most popular team sports in the world. Soccer also can be a way to encourage children to be physically active while they learn about teamwork and sportsmanship.

With the growing popularity of soccer comes a greater number of injuries. However, the risk of injury can be reduced.

Tips to Help Prevent Soccer Injuries

  • Equipment. Players should use the right equipment.
    • Protective Mouthguards
    • Protective Eyewear. Glasses or goggles should be made with polycarbonate or a similar material. The material should conform to the standards of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM).
    • Shoes. Cleats should provide sufficient heel/arch support and grip.
    • Balls. Soccer balls should be water-resistant, the right size based on age, and properly inflated.
    • Preseason Training. There is growing evidence that preseason conditioning and balance training may reduce the risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury.
  • Fair Play. Violent behavior and aggressive play increase the risk of injury and should be strongly discouraged. Parents and coaches should encourage good sportsmanship and fair play.
  • Field Conditions. Uneven playing surfaces can increase risk of injury, especially in outdoor soccer. The field should be checked for holes or irregularities. Goal posts

Golf

In the past, golf was seen by many as a leisure activity for people with extra time and money to spend. Today golf is seen as a sport, and one that appeals to younger participants.

While golf is not thought of as a dangerous sport, the long hours of practice and the physical demands of learning and playing the game can lead to injuries. While not all injuries can be prevented, the risk of injuries can be reduced.

The following is a chart from the American Academy of Pediatrics of common golf injuries and an overview of symptoms and treatment. Also included are diagrams of 2 exercises.

Common injuries, symptoms, and treatment

Golf injuries can be divided into those that occur from swinging a club and those that occur from the miles of walking on a golf course. To prevent injury, athletes must have an understanding of the stresses golf puts on the body and must prepare their bodies to handle these stresses.

Most golf injuries develop over time rather than as a result of a single event. It is important to recognize the early signs of an injury and seek treatment before

Martial Arts

More than 6 million children in the United States participate in martial arts. Martial arts are known to improve social skills, discipline, and respect in children. Children can also improve their abilities to concentrate and focus on activities, as well as bettering their motor skills and self-confidence. Martial arts can be fun and beneficial at any age.

While the martial arts are relatively safe, injuries can happen because there is physical contact between opponents. The following is information from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) about how to prevent martial arts injuries. Also included is an overview of martial arts forms.

Injury prevention and safety tips

  • Instructors. Experienced instructors will teach at a level appropriate for your child’s age and maturity. Lessons should emphasize technique and self-control. Experienced instructors will carefully advance your child through more complex training. Lessons should also be fun. Visit a variety of instructors and ask about their experiences with young children and their teaching philosophy.
  • Technique. An instructor’s emphasis on technique and self-control is very important in limiting the risk for injury. Children should learn to punch and kick with their hands and feet in proper position and using the appropriate

Horseback Riding

Horseback riding (equestrian) is a common activity in the United States; about 30 million people go horseback riding every year. Unlike other sports, the risk of injury is highest for the most inexperienced riders. As riders gain experience, they learn how to avoid injury as they learn to properly handle the horse.

Most horseback riding injuries happen when a rider falls or is thrown from a horse. Falls are more likely to produce serious injuries if the horse is moving quickly or if the rider is dragged or crushed by the horse. However, not all injuries happen while riding. The most serious injuries while off the horse are from horse kicks.

The following is information from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) about how to prevent horseback riding injuries. Also included is an overview of common horseback riding injuries.

Injury prevention and safety tips

  • Stable conditions. Proper care of the horses is important. Stables should be well maintained and staffed with trained professionals.
  • Horse safety. Riders should always be careful around horses and should be instructed to never walk behind a horse, or make sudden movements or loud noises near them. Riders should never ride

Tips to Choosing a Sports Program

Childhood sports programs have grown significantly in recent years. Millions of boys and girls are now involved in Little League baseball, youth soccer, community basketball leagues, competitive swimming teams, and similar types of activities. Happily, sports programs are becoming increasingly avail­able for girls, whose need for such activities and whose ability to participate is equal to that of boys. If your own child joins one or more of these programs, he will have a won­derful opportunity for fun and fitness. At the same time, however, a youngster poorly matched to a sports team—or who must deal with unrealistic expecta­tions from a parent, a coach, or even himself—can have a very negative sports experience, filled with stress and frustration.

Before your child enters a youth sports program, evaluate his objectives as well as your own. Although both child and parent may fantasize about using this as a stepping-stone toward becoming a professional athlete or an Olympic champion, few participants have the talent and dedication to reach those heights. Even more modest goals are far from guaranteed: Only one in four out­standing elementary school athletes becomes a sports standout in high school. Only one in more than 6,600 high school

Basketball and Volleyball

Acute and overuse injuries are common in jumping sports likebasketball and volleyball. Acute injuries include bruises(contusions); cuts and scrapes (lacerations); ankle, knee, or finger sprains or fractures; shoulder dislocations; eye injuries; and concussions. Overuse injuries include patellar tendonitis (also called jumper’s knee) or Osgood-Schlatter disease, spondylolysis (stress fracture of the spine), rotator cuff tendinopathy, stress fractures, and shin splints.

The following is information from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) about how to prevent basketball and volleyball injuries. Also included is an overview of common basketball and volleyball injuries.

Injury prevention and safety tips

  • Sports physical exam. Athletes should have a preparticipation physical evaluation (PPE) to make sure they are ready to safely begin the sport. The best time for a PPE is about 4 to 6 weeks before the beginning of the season. Athletes also should see their doctors for regular health well-child checkups.
  • Fitness. Athletes should maintain a good fitness level during the season and off-season. Preseason training should allow time for general conditioning and sport-specific conditioning. Also important are proper warm-up and cool-down exercises.
  • Technique. Athletes should learn and practice safe techniques for performing the skills that are integral to their sport. Athletes should